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molniya orbit raan


[2], While satellites in Molniya orbits require considerably less launch energy than those in geostationary orbits (especially launching from high latitudes),[4] their ground stations need steerable antennas to track the spacecraft, links must be switched between satellites in a constellation and range changes cause variations in signal amplitude. J Molniya orbits are named after a series of Soviet/Russian Molniya communications satellites which have been using this type of orbit since the mid-1960s. Solution. If three spacecraft are used, then each spacecraft will be active for a period of eight hours per orbit, centered around apogee,[2] as illustrated in figure 4. The 12-h Molniya HEO system has only two apogees.

a [3] Studies found that this could be achieved using a highly elliptical orbit with an apogee over Russian territory. In fact, in the period from apogee −3 hours to apogee +3 hours, the sub-satellite point of the spacecraft is north of latitude 55.5° N and the elevation of the spacecraft is over 10° from all points north of latitude 54.1° N and over 5° from all points north of latitude 49.2° N. An additional advantage is that considerably less launch energy is needed to place a spacecraft into a Molniya orbit than into a geostationary orbit. {\displaystyle J_{2}} {\displaystyle \omega } [20], To track satellites using Molniya orbits, scientists use the SDP4 simplified perturbations model, which calculates the location of a satellite based on orbital shape, drag, radiation, gravitation effects from the sun and moon, and earth resonance terms.[29]. J is the radius of the earth, The orbits of the three spacecraft should then have the same apogee longitudes (for example 90° W and 90° E), but pass the apogee with eight hours shift; i.e. For any future applications over the southern hemisphere, it would instead be set at 90°.[24]. Its replacement, the Molniya-2, provided both military and civilian broadcasting, and was used to create the Orbita television network, spanning the Soviet Union. [20][19]:143 An orbit designed in this manner is called a frozen orbit. {\displaystyle i} Figure 6: View of the Earth four hours before apogee from a Molniya orbit under the assumption that the longitude of the apogee is 90° E. The spacecraft is at an altitude of 24,043 km over the point 92.65° E 47.04° N. Figure 7: View of the Earth from the apogee of a Molniya orbit under the assumption that the longitude of the apogee is 90° E. The spacecraft is at an altitude of 39,867 km over the point 90° E 63.43° N. Figure 8: View of the Earth four hours after apogee from a Molniya orbit under the assumption that the longitude of the apogee is 90° E. The spacecraft is at an altitude of 24,043 km over the point 87.35° E 47.04° N. Figure 9: View of the Earth four hours before apogee from a Molniya orbit under the assumption that the longitude of the apogee is 90° W. The spacecraft is at an altitude of 24,043 km over the point 87.35° W 47.04° N. Figure 10: View of the Earth from the apogee of a Molniya orbit under the assumption that the longitude of the apogee is 90° W. The spacecraft is at an altitude of 39,867 km over the point 90° W 63.43° N. Figure 11: View of the Earth 4 hours after apogee from a Molniya orbit under the assumption that the longitude of the apogee is 90° W. The spacecraft is at an altitude of 24,043 km over the point 92.65° W 47.04° N. A typical Molniya orbit has the following properties: The argument of perigee is set at 270°, causing the satellite to experience apogee at the most northerly point of its orbit. P is the orbital period.

Orbital mechanics is a modern offshoot of celestial mechanics which is the study of the motions of natural celestial bodies such as the moon and planets.

To broadcast to these latitudes from a geostationary orbit (above the Earth's equator) requires considerable power due to the low elevation angles, and the extra distance and atmospheric attenuation that comes with it. ˙ [19] The coverage from a satellite in a Molniya orbit over Russia is shown in figures 6 to 8, and over North America in figures 9 to 11. Note that the two spacecraft at the time of switch-over are separated by about 1,500 kilometres (930 mi), so that the ground stations only have to move their antennas a few degrees to acquire the new spacecraft.[28]. The second method is to array the satellites into a single inertial orbit … Sites located above 81° latitude are unable to view geostationary satellites at all, and as a rule of thumb, elevation angles of less than 10° can cause problems, depending on the communications frequency. Said next spacecraft has the visibility displayed in figure 3 (or figure 6) and the switch-over can take place. n [13] This was followed by the American SDS constellation, which operates with a mixture of Molniya and geostationary orbits. which are equations (24) and (28) of the article Orbital perturbation analysis (spacecraft). ˙ Usually the period from, ✪ Satellite ground tracks - Eccentricity, ✪ Orbital Simulation Software - LabVolt Series 9581.

As the apogee altitude is as high as 40,000 km, it will therefore, for a considerable period around apogee, have an excellent visibility from the Northern Hemisphere, from the Russian Federation but also from northern Europe, Greenland and Canada. {\displaystyle J_{2}} American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Preliminary Analysis of the First Successful Soviet Communications Satellite, "A History of Soviet/Russian Meteorological Satellites", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, "Soyuz 2-1a launches with Russian Meridian 4 military satellite", "Reducing a Common Danger: Improving Russia's Early-Warning System", "History and the Current Status of the Russian Early-Warning System", "Russia blinded by loss of missile detection satellite", "Russian Soyuz-2.1b rocket successfully launches Tundra satellite", "Soyuz rocket successfully delivers EKS-2 early-warning satellite to rare orbit", "Russia sends military satellite into orbit for missile warnings – Spaceflight Now", "Determination of Look Angles To Geostationary Communication Satellites", "On the Use of Satellites in Molniya Orbits of Meteorological Observation of Middle and High Latitudes", 10.1175/1520-0426(1990)007<0517:OTUOSI>2.0.CO;2, "The Orbital Lifetime of Molniya Satellites", Final evaluation of the Australian Space Research Program, "As the details emerge on Australia's new space agency, we (might) finally have lift-off", "On the Use of Satellites in Molniya Orbits for Meteorological Observation of Middle and High Latitudes", "Systems Engineering of a Terabit Elliptic Orbit Satellite and Phased Array Ground Station for IoT Connectivity and Consumer Internet Access", Models for Propagation of NORAD Element Sets, Illustration of the communication geometry provided by satellites in 12-hour Molniya orbits. 5 A red line corresponds to service for Northern America with the visibility of figures 6–8. In the eight-hour period centered at the apogee passage, the longitudinal plane is almost fixed, the longitude of the satellite varies by only ±2.7°. Would you like Wikipedia to always look as professional and up-to-date? Orbit Meccanics: 1) Conic Sections 2) Orbital Elements 3) Types of Orbits 4) Newton’s Laws of Motion and Universal Gravitation 5) Uniform Circular Motion 6) Motions of Planets and Satellites 7) Launch of a Space Vehicle 8) Position in an Elliptical Orbit 9) Orbit Perturbations 10) Orbit Maneuvers The orbital elements discussed at the beginning of this section provide an excellent … A green line corresponds to service for Asia and Europe with the visibility of figures 6–8. These were in turn replaced by the Molniya-3 design. For a Molniya orbit, the inclination is selected such that as given by the formula above is zero but , as given by the other equation, will be −0.0742° per orbit. A green line corresponds to service for Asia and Europe with the visibility of figures 3–5. [14] A Russian satellite constellation called Tyulpan was designed in 1994 to support communications at high latitudes, but it did not progress past the planning phase. To maximise the amount of time that the satellite spends over the apogee, the eccentricity should be set as high as possible. It is a highly elliptical orbit with an inclination of 63.4 degrees, an argument of perigee of 270 degrees, and an orbital period of approximately half a sidereal day. Constellation with RAAN varied inertial orbits. ˙ A Molniya orbit (Russian: Молния, IPA: [ˈmolnʲɪjə] (listen), "Lightning") is a type of satellite orbit designed to provide communications and remote sensing coverage over high latitudes. To broadcast to these latitudes from a geostationary orbit (above the Earth's equator) would require considerable power due to the low elevation angles. There is some confusion in the existing sources about the naming, with some sources suggesting that all of the satellites on-orbit are of the Molniya-3 type, but referred to as Molniya-1 through -3 depending on their purpose.

Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The orbits of the three spacecraft should then have the same orbital parameters, but different right ascensions of the ascending nodes, with their passes over the apogees separated by 7.97 hours. The Molniya orbit was discovered by Soviet scientists in the 1960s as a high-latitude communications alternative to geostationary orbits, which require large launch energies to achieve a high perigee and to change inclination to orbit over the equator (especially when launched from Russian latitudes). In the operational part of the orbit (four hours on each side of apogee), the satellite is north of 55.5° N (latitude of, for example, central Scotland, Moscow and southern part of Hudson Bay). 2(0)= 1(0)+ Ω1−Ω2 (ref.

1. is the semimajor axis, and i The early Molniya-1 satellites were used for long-range military communications starting in 1968, but the satellites had a short lifespan and had to be constantly replaced. Much of the area of the former Soviet Union, and Russia in particular, is located at high latitudes.
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