The enthalpy of combustion of propane gas where products do not return to standard state, for example where the hot gases including water vapor exit a chimney, (known as lower heating value) is −2043.455 kJ/mol. However, an improper air/gas mixture can produce Carbon Monoxide (CO) that is a deadly product of incomplete combustion. Fuels and Chemicals - Autoignition Temperatures, en: fuels autoignition temperatures ignition. Snelling had produced relatively pure propane by 1911, and on March 25, 1913, his method of processing and producing LP gases was issued patent #1,056,845. This reduces bunker fuel consumption and the pollution created by the ships. It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure, but compressible to a transportable liquid. This means propane is less dense than water (lighter than water) and will not sink in water, so to speak.BTU - As defined, a British Thermal Unit is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. Propylene (also called propene) can be a contaminant of commercial propane. Propane undergoes combustion reactions in a similar fashion to other alkanes.
If propane is heated up to a temperature between 920 and 1020°F, it will ignite without needing a spark or flame. When used for heating or grain drying it is usually stored in a large, permanently-placed cylinder which is recharged by a propane-delivery truck. The "prop-" root found in "propane" and names of other compounds with three-carbon chains was derived from "propionic acid", which in turn was named after the Greek words protos (meaning first) and pion (fat). Propane is also instrumental in providing off-the-grid refrigeration, as the energy source for a gas absorption refrigerator and is commonly used for camping and recreational vehicles. These applications will - due to browser restrictions - send data between your browser and our server.  Propane burns hotter than home heating oil or diesel fuel because of the very high hydrogen content. Please read Google Privacy & Terms for more information about how you can control adserving and the information collected. HD-5 is currently being used in all propane applications. Propane and other LP gas specifications are established in ASTM D-1835.  Propane has low toxicity since it is not readily absorbed and is not biologically active. The enthalpy of combustion of propane gas where all products return to standard state, for example where water returns to its liquid state at standard temperature (known as higher heating value), is (2219.2 ± 0.5) kJ/mol, or (50.33 ± 0.01) MJ/kg.
 A separate method of producing LP gas through compression was created by Frank Peterson and its patent granted on July 2, 1912. Atmospheric Ignition Temperature - Between 920 and 1020 degrees Fahrenheit is the temperature at which propane is capable of ignition without an ignition source.
A further saving for propane fuel vehicle operators, especially in fleets, is that pilferage is much more difficult than with gasoline or diesel fuels. We don't save this data. If propane is heated up to a temperature between 920 and 1020Â°F, it will ignite without needing a spark or flame. Compared to fluorocarbons, propane has a negligible ozone depletion potential and very low global warming potential (having a value of only 3.3 times the GWP of carbon dioxide) and can serve as a functional replacement for R-12, R-22, R-134a, and other chlorofluorocarbon or hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants in conventional stationary refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Propane Octane Number - Without presenting a chemistry lesson, the Octane number of propane being over 100 means that it is a very engine friendly fuel.See Propane Liquid and Propane Vapor for more detailed information about the physical states of propane. Propane gas has become a popular choice for barbecues and portable stoves because its low boiling point makes it vaporize as soon as it is released from its pressurized container. The Kingman Explosion involved a railroad tank car in Kingman, Arizona in 1973 during a propane transfer. The show's portrayal of the propane industry is looked upon favorably by said industry. In 2004, it was reported to be a growing $8-billion to $10-billion industry with over 15 billion US gallons (57,000,000 m3) of propane being used annually in the U.S.. The use of a liquefied gas gives more shots per cylinder, compared to a compressed gas. One hazard associated with propane storage and transport is known as a BLEVE or boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion. International ships can reuse propane from ocean-going ships that transport LPG because as the sun evaporates the propane during the voyage, the international ship catches the evaporating propane gas and feeds it into the air intake system of the ship's diesel engines. Please read AddThis Privacy for more information. Propane is denser than air.  However, propane costs per gallon change significantly from one state to another: the Energy Information Administration (EIA) quotes a $2.995 per gallon average on the East Coast for October 2013, while the figure for the Midwest was $1.860 for the same period. As a gas, very high pressure is required to store useful quantities. The LPG used as auto fuel and cooking gas in Asia and Australia, also has a very high content of butane. Meanwhile, it is noticeably cleaner (both in handling, and in combustion), results in less engine wear (due to carbon deposits) without diluting engine oil (often extending oil-change intervals), and until recently was a relative bargain in North America. Commonly stored under pressure at room temperature, propane and its mixtures will flash evaporate at atmospheric pressure and cool well below the freezing point of water.
In North America, local delivery trucks with an average cylinder size of 3,000 US gallons (11,000 L), fill up large cylinders that are permanently installed on the property, or other service trucks exchange empty cylinders of propane with filled cylinders.  All propane fuels include an odorant, almost always ethanethiol, so that people can easily smell the gas in case of a leak.  The lower heat value is the amount of heat available from burning the substance where the combustion products are vented to the atmosphere; for example, the heat from a fireplace when the flue is open. Propane is a popular choice for barbecues and portable stoves because the low boiling point of −42 °C (−44 °F) makes it vaporize as soon as it is released from its pressurized container. By 1947, 62% of all U.S. homes had been equipped with either natural gas or propane for cooking. This property makes propane generally unsuitable as a fuel for boats. Truckers, tractor pulling competitions, and farmers have been using a propane boost system for over forty years in North America.
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